GCSE Biology: Cells

Animal Cell

Cell Membrane: Controls what enters and exits the cell. It is semi-permeable. Some substances can cross, some can never cross and some can sometimes cross.

Cytoplasm: A jelly substance where all the cell reactions take place. Organic catalysts called enzymes work here.

Nucleus: The nucleus is the control centre of the cell. It contains genetic information in the form of chromosomes.

Nuclear Membrane: Surrounds the Nucleus. It is continuous with the nucleus.

Mitochondria: Energy released during respiration. The "Powerhouse" of the cell.

Glycogen granules: These are the cells foot store.

Plant Cell

Cell Wall: Gives plan cell shape and support. Contains Cellulose.

Vacuole: Fills with sap. Helps cell keep it's shape.

Chloroplast: Trap the sunlight energy and makes starch. Traps the sunlight for photosynthesis.

Starch Grains: Stored food of a plant cell.

Specialised Cells

Sperm Cell: The head contains the DNA. The tip of it's head is designed aerodynamically. The neck is packed full of mitochondria to give it energy. A lot of spern have disabilities, like two tails or they swim in circles. This means millions and millions are produced, with only a single, or sometimes two successful sperm.

Red Blood Cell: It is a shortlived blood cell with no nucleus. It is designed to pack in oxygen with the haemoglobin to carry oxygen.

Nerve Cell: A very long axon. This means a single cell can go fom your head to your toe. The fibres at the end are called dendrites. These allow the neurone to communicate with other cells.

Root hair cell: It takes water from the soil. It has a bit sticking out to have a larger surface area so it can take in more water.

Ciliated Cell: When you breath in they waft the mucus in your respiratory system. If you have a lot you cough or swallow it. Smoking paralyses the cilia. This means the mucus pools in the bottom of your lungs, they have tar in them and their surface area is reduced and are also more prone to infection.